agreements only work in the long run. This type of contract needs this
approach. If you don’t agree with this moto, it´s better not to continue reading.
Collaboration in the manufacturing industry is
not new. The concept of supply chain management is an example. Manufacturers are
doing long-term and open-book contracts with their suppliers to reduce lead
time and cost throughout the supply chain. Dell was the leader in computer
manufacturing years ago, thanks to its
control of the supply chain. They deliver directly to the end customer and know
the demand; then they can reduce their own stocks and its suppliers, too.
Some contractors are doing long-term contracts
with some suppliers of materials (concrete, formwork, steel and others) with a
good price and service. They belong to a common territory or country. But the Construction
Industry needs to make a step forward: long term collaboration with suppliers.
It entails sharing know-how, planning and technical support. The contractor
should also help them to implement Lean tools and a kaizen culture. A benefit
for the suppliers will be a benefit for the contractor.
A good beginning to establish a good relation
among contractor, subcontractors and architects is an IPD contract. Lean
Project Delivery System is the
definition of the Lean Construction Institute where we incorporate the
contractor or suppliers into the design phase. Furthermore, if we use open-book
contracts and risks and benefits are shared, it will be a “positive attractor”
(according to Boyatzis theory) in establishing trust
and true collaboration in the project. These contracts are called “relational
contracting”. Most used are Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), Integrated Form
of Agreement (IFOA), PPC2000 (Project Partnering Contracts) and Alliance Contracting
(both in public and private projects). The use of Building Information
Modelling (BIM) and Last Planner (in the design and construction phase) are also very useful into achieving the
target cost, reducing waste and improving team-working.
This is the hardest point in lean construction:
working together (owner, contractor, architect, engineers, etc…) from the
beginning towards a common goal. It requires sincerity and adopting new roles.
The architect must think about how to build and contractor has to learn to
design. The American Institute of Architects (AIA) has different IPD contract
documents. Check this link to read case studies.
The AIA defines IPD as “a project delivery
approach that integrates people, systems, business structures and practices
into a process that collaboratively harness the talents and insights of all
project participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner,
reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication
and construction” (AIA CA Council 2007). ConsensusDOCS, an organization that
has been established by twenty-two leading construction associations, published
a consensus set of IPD contract documents (ConsensusDOCS 2009).
Next, there is some advice so as to work
collaboratively according to Toyota
Way by Jeffrey Liker.
1. Ideas related to problem solving:
and see: go regularly to the production site.
decide together the best solution to solve the problem.
A3 as a summary of meetings.
2. First issues to consider before a meeting:
objectives before the meeting.
people according the topic of the meeting.
work done (accountability).
tools: A3, pictures, bar chart, etc…
shared beforehand, to focus the meeting on solving the setback
starts and ends according to the timetable
In attachments, there is an A3 sheet by the Lean